Medical Crossfire: Optimizing Outcomes for Patients with Stroke: Secondary Prevention and Risk Reduction

Released On
July 7, 2022

Expires On
July 7, 2023

Media Type

Completion Time
90 minutes

Cardiology, Emergency Medicine, Neurology, Primary Care


Scroll to the Bottom of this Information to Begin this Course

This activity is provided by Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC.


This activity is supported by an educational grant from W. L. Gore & Associates.

Credit Available

  • Physicians — maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)

All other healthcare professionals completing this course will be issued a statement of participation.

Target Audience

This educational activity is directed toward neurologists, critical care neurologists, emergency medicine clinicians, critical/intensive care specialists, cardiologists, internists, primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and nurses involved in the management of patients at risk for recurrent stroke. Other health care providers involved in secondary stroke prevention are also invited to participate.

Program Overview

Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Ischemic stroke, which is caused by obstruction in a blood vessel supplying blood to the brain, is the most common type of stroke, accounting for 87% of strokes globally. Most patients who experience an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) should be managed with risk-reduction strategies. Such strategies, known as secondary prevention, include lifestyle modifications, blood pressure reduction, statin therapy, antithrombotic therapy, and closures of patent foramen ovale (PFO). Studies demonstrate that at least four-fifths of recurrent vascular events in patients with cerebrovascular disease might be prevented by combining multiple approaches.

The Medical Crossfire™, one of PER®’s signature educational formats, is a video-based program in which a panel of distinguished experts engage in spirited discussions and debates on a particular clinical topic. In this activity, 3 key thought leaders explore data regarding current and emerging secondary strategies to prevent stroke. This lively discussion will help place new developments into clinical context to help you optimize care for your patients at risk for recurrent ischemic stroke and TIA.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants should be better able to:

  • Explain the current risk reduction strategies for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke
  • Analyze efficacy and safety of clinical trial data of antiplatelet therapies for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke
  • Assess efficacy and safety of clinical trial data of PFO device closures for secondary prevention of stroke in select patients
  • Apply recent evidence of PFO device closures into the clinical context of evolving paradigms in the secondary prevention of stroke



John Rhodes, MD

Director, Congenital Heart Disease Program
Medical University of South Carolina
Charleston, SC


Robert J. Sommer, MD

Director, Invasive Adult Congenital Heart Disease
Columbia University Irving Medical Center
Center for Interventional Cardiovascular Care
Department of Medicine
Division of Cardiology
Associate Professor of Medicine
Columbia University School of Medicine
New York, NY


Christine A. Holmstedt, DO

Medical University of South Carolina
Professor of Neurology & Emergency Medicine
Medical Director MUSC Health
Comprehensive Stroke Center
Medical Director MUSC Health
Teleneuroscience Program
Division Director, Vascular Neurology
Medical University of South Carolina
Charleston, SC

Accreditation/Credit Designation

Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC, is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC, designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Faculty, Staff, and Planners’ Disclosures

The staff of Physicians’ Education Resource®, LLC have no relevant financial relationships with ineligible entities.

John Rhodes, MD, at the time of program launch, disclosures have not been provided.

Robert J. Sommer, MD
  • Grant/Research Support: W.L. Gore & Associates

Christine A. Holmstedt, DO, has no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.

PER® mitigated all COI for faculty, staff, and planners prior to the start of this activity by using a multistep process.

Instructions for Participation and Credit

  1. Complete the activity (including pre- and post-activity assessments).
  2. Answer the evaluation questions.
  3. Request credit using the drop-down menu.
You may immediately download your certificate.

Course Viewing Requirements

Supported Browsers:
Internet Explorer 8.0+ for Windows 2003, Vista, XP, Windows 7, Windows 8.1 and above
Google Chrome 28.0+ for Windows, Mac OS, or Linux
Mozilla Firefox 23.0+ for Windows, Mac OS, or Linux
Safari 6.0+ for Mac OSX 10.7 and above

Supported Phones & Tablets:
Android 4.0.3 and above
iPhone/iPad with iOS 6.1 or above

Off-Label Disclosure and Disclaimer

This activity may or may not discuss investigational, unapproved, or off-label use of drugs. Learners are advised to consult prescribing information for any products discussed. The information provided in this accredited activity is for continuing education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent clinical judgment of a health care professional relative to diagnostic, treatment, or management options for a specific patient’s medical condition. The opinions expressed in the content are solely those of the individual faculty members and do not reflect those of PER® or any company that provided commercial support for this activity.