The Path of Least Resistance: New Agents and Emerging Strategies for Managing Childhood-Onset and Refractory Epilepsies

Released On
February 15, 2022

Expires On
February 15, 2023

Media Type

Completion Time
60 minutes



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This activity is jointly provided by Postgraduate Institute for Medicine and Efficient LLC.

This activity is supported by an independent educational grant from Greenwich Biosciences LLC (a Jazz Pharmaceuticals company).

Credit Available

  • Physicians — maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)

All other health care professionals completing this course will be issued a statement of participation.

Target Audience

This activity is designed to meet the educational needs of neurologists, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and other allied healthcare professionals involved in the management of epilepsy.

Program Overview

Epilepsy syndromes are historically difficult to diagnose and treat effectively due to their widely varying etiologies and presentations and their high probability of drug-resistance. With the influx of newly discovered and potentially targetable genetic etiologies driving epilepsy, long-held standards in diagnosis and management of these populations are being upended. For this activity, Efficient surveyed five renowned epileptologists regarding their perspectives on a breadth of case-based and practical considerations in the modern management of genetic and drug-resistant epilepsies. Using these survey results as a foundation, Drs Sullivan, Kessler, and Perry navigate new approaches and delineate expert strategies to help maximize outcomes in these classically difficult to treat presentations.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants should be better able to:

  • Evaluate the utility of modern diagnostic strategies (e.g., genetic testing) to distinguish prevalent childhood-onset epilepsy syndromes (e.g., Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes) quickly and effectively.
  • Discuss mechanisms of action for, phase 3 outcomes of, and clinical experience with recently FDA-approved therapies for childhood-onset epilepsies in order to better customize therapeutic decision-making and optimize patient outcomes.
  • Assess the ongoing phase 3 evaluation of agents for use in syndromic and general refractory epilepsies for patients of varying age groups to determine the potential future roles of these agents.




Joseph E. Sullivan, MD (Chair)

Director, UCSF Pediatric Epilepsy Center of Excellence
Co-Director, PICES Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship
Professor, Neurology and Pediatrics
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA


Sudha K. Kessler, MD, MSCE

Associate Professor, Neurology and Pediatrics
Catherine D. Brown Endowed Chair in Pediatric Epilepsy
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Philadelphia, PA


M. Scott Perry, MD

Medical Director, Neurology
Co-Director, Jane and John Justin Neurosciences Center
Director, Genetic Epilepsy Clinic
Cook Children’s Medical Center
Fort Worth, TX


Katherine C. Nickels, MD, FAES, FAAN (Surveyed Expert)

Chair, Child and Adolescent Neurology Recruitment
Associate Professor, Neurology
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
Rochester, MN


Heather E. Olson, MD (Surveyed Expert)

Assistant Professor of Neurology
Boston Children’s Hospital
Boston, MA


Accreditation Statement

In support of improving patient care, this activity has been planned and implemented by the Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) and Efficient LLC. Postgraduate Institute for Medicine is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team..

Credit Designation

PIM designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Disclosures of Conflicts of Interest

Joseph E. Sullivan, MD (Chair)
  • Consulting Fees (e.g., advisory boards): Asceneuron, BrightMinds, Encoded Therapeutics, Epilepsy Study Consortium, Epygenix Therapeutics, Greenwich Biosciences, Invitae, Knopp Biosciences, Longboard, Stoke Therapeutics, Supernus, Xenon Pharmaceuticals
  • Fees for Non-CME/CE Services: BioPharm, Encoded Therapeutics, Marinus Pharmaceuticals, Stoke Therapeutics, Zogenix
  • Ownership Iterest less than 5%: Epygenix Therapeutics

Sudha K. Kessler, MD, MSCE has no financial relationships to disclose.

M. Scott Perry, MD
  • Consulting Fees: Biomarin, Cycle Pharmaceuticals, Encoded Therapeutics, Greenwich Bioscences, IQVIA, Marinus, Neurelis, Stoke Therapeutics, Zogenix
  • Fees for Non-CME/CE Services: Speakers’ Bureau for Greenwich Biosciences, NobelPharma and Zogenix
  • Fees for Contracted Research: Lead PI for Stoke Therapeutics

Katherine C. Nickels, MD, FAES, FAAN (Surveyed Expert) has no financial relationships to disclose.

Heather E. Olson, MD (Surveyed Expert)
  • Consulting Fees: FOXGl Foundation, Marinus Pharmaceuticals, Ovid Pharmaceuticals, Zogenix

Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) requires faculty, planners, and others in control of educational content to disclose all their financial relationships with ineligible companies. All identified conflicts of interest (COI) are thoroughly vetted and mitigated according to PIM policy. PIM is committed to providing its learners with high quality accredited continuing education activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in healthcare and not a specific proprietary business interest of an ineligible company.

The PIM planners and others have nothing to disclose. The Efficient LLC planners and others have nothing to disclose.

Instructions for Participation and Credit

There are no fees for participating and receiving CME credit for this enduring activity. To receive CME credit participants must:

  1. Read the CME/CE information and faculty disclosures.
  2. Participate in the online activity.
  3. Complete the pre- and post-assessment and submit the evaluation form.
Certificates will be emailed to the participant

Course Viewing Requirements

Supported Browsers:
Internet Explorer 8.0+ for Windows 2003, Vista, XP, Windows 7, Windows 8.1 and above
Google Chrome 28.0+ for Windows, Mac OS, or Linux
Mozilla Firefox 23.0+ for Windows, Mac OS, or Linux
Safari 6.0+ for Mac OSX 10.7 and above

Supported Phones & Tablets:
Android 4.0.3 and above
iPhone/iPad with iOS 6.1 or above

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use

This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. The planners of this activity do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications. The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of the planners. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.


Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient's conditions and possible contraindications and/or dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer's product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.

Contact Information

For CME questions please contact: